Less heart risk when parents lived longer

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In middle-aged populations, the risks of cardiovascular conditions are progressively lower the longer a person’s parents lived past 69 years old, according to a UK study of 186,000 participants.

The longer our parents lived, the longer we are likely to live ourselves, and the more likely we are to stay healthy in our sixties and seventies a study has found. Having longer-lived parents means we have with much lower rates of a range of heart conditions and some cancers.

The major study, funded by the Medical Research Council and involving almost 190,000 participants in the UK Biobank, is the largest of its kind. It found that our chances of survival increased by 17% for each decade that at least one parent lives beyond the age of 70.

The study was led by the University of Exeter and involved an international team of academics from the University of Cambridge (UK), UConn Centre on Aging at UConn Health in Connecticut, US, the French National Institute of Health, and the Indian Institute of Public Health. It found evidence showing for the first time that knowing the age at which your parents died could help predict your risk not only of heart disease, but many aspects of heart and circulatory health.

The researchers used data on the health of 186,000 middle-aged offspring, aged 55 to 73 years, followed over a period of up to eight years. The team found that those with longer lived parents had lower incidence of multiple circulatory conditions including heart disease, heart failure, stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and atrial fibrillation. For example, the risk of death from heart disease was 20% lower for each decade that at least one parent lived beyond the age of 70 years. In addition, those with longer lived parents also had reduced risk of cancer; 7% reduced likelihood of cancer in the follow-up per longer-lived parent.

Although factors such as smoking, high alcohol consumption, low physical activity and obesity were important, the lifespan of our parents was still predictive of disease onset after accounting for these risks.

Dr Janice Atkins, a research fellow in the epidemiology and public health group at the University of Exeter Medical School and lead author on the paper, said: “To our knowledge, this is the largest study to show that the longer your parents live, the more likely you are to remain healthy in your sixties and seventies. Asking about parents’ longevity could help us predict our likelihood of ageing well and developing conditions such as heart disease, in order to identify patients at higher or lower risk in time to treat them appropriately.”

The study built on previous findings published by the University of Exeter Medical School researchers earlier this year, which established a genetic link between parents’ longevity and heart disease risk. That paper studied 75,000 participants in the UK Biobank, and found that offspring of longer-lived parents were more likely to have protective variants of genes liked to coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

Dr Luke Pilling, lead author of the second study, said: “This work helps us identify genetic variations explaining the better health of people with longer-lived parents. We prominently found genetic factors linked to blood pressure, cholesterol levels and smoking, which underlines how important these avoidable and treatable risks are. However, we also found novel genetic factors, which could provide new clues to help us understand why having longer-lived parents has health benefits.”

Professor David Melzer, who leads the research programme, said: “It’s been unclear why some older people develop heart conditions in their sixties while others only develop these conditions much later in life or even avoid them completely. Our research tells us that, while avoiding the well-known risk factors such as smoking is very important, there are also other factors inherited from parents. As we understand these parental factors better, we should be able to help more people to age well.”

Professor George Kuchel, study co-author and director of the UConn Centre on Aging also noted: “This study provides additional fuel to really bolster research efforts by us and others in Geroscience, a field that seeks to understand relationships between the biology of aging and age-related diseases. Aging is the most important risk factor for common chronic conditions such as heart disease, Alzheimer’s and cancer, which are likely to share pathways with aging and therefore interventions designed to slow biological aging processes may also delay the onset of disease and disability, thus expanding years of healthy and independent lives for our seniors.”

Article Summary
Cardiovascular risk assessment currently identifies higher risk individuals through parental histories of early onset myocardial infarction. However, having relatively long-lived parents is associated with markedly lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risks and longer survival. Parental longevity associations with other common cardiovascular outcomes are little studied. We estimated associations between parents’ age at death and common incident conditions plus mortality in a large middle-aged cohort.

Authors
Janice L Atkins, Luke C Pilling, Alessandro Ble, Ambarish Dutta, Lorna W Harries, Anna Murray, Carol Brayne, Jean-Marie Robine, George A Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer

Abstract
Variation in human lifespan is 20 to 30% heritable in twins but few genetic variants have been identified. We undertook a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using age at death of parents of middle-aged UK Biobank participants of European decent (n=75,244 with father’s and/or mother’s data, excluding early deaths). Genetic risk scores for 19 phenotypes (n=777 proven variants) were also tested. In GWAS, a nicotine receptor locus(CHRNA3, previously associated with increased smoking and lung cancer) was associated with fathers’ survival. Less common variants requiring further confirmation were also identified. Offspring of longer lived parents had more protective alleles for coronary artery disease, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and Alzheimer’s disease. In candidate analyses, variants in the TOMM40/APOE locus were associated with longevity, but FOXO variants were not. Associations between extreme longevity (mother >=98 years, fathers >=95 years, n=1,339) and disease alleles were similar, with an additional association with HDL cholesterol (p=5.7×10-3). These results support a multiple protective factors model influencing lifespan and longevity (top 1% survival) in humans, with prominent roles for cardiovascular-related pathways. Several of these genetically influenced risks, including blood pressure and tobacco exposure, are potentially modifiable.

Authors
Pilling LC, Atkins JL, Bowman K, Jones SE, Tyrrell J, Beaumont RN, Ruth KS, Tuke MA, Yaghootkar H, Wood AR, Freathy RM, Murray A, Weedon MN, Xue L, Lunetta K, Murabito JM, Harries LW, Robine JM, Brayne C, Kuchel GA, Ferrucci L, Frayling TM, Melzer D

Exeter University material
Journal of the American College of Cardiology abstract
Aging abstract


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