Cannabis use in pregnancy boosts risk of child sleep problems

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Use cannabis while pregnant, and your child is more likely to suffer sleep problems as much as a decade later, according to a study of nearly 12,000 youth by the University of Colorado, Boulder in the United States.

Lisa Marshall, for the University of Colorado’s CU Boulder Today, reported that a paper just published in Sleep Health: The Journal of The National Sleep Foundation is the latest to link prenatal cannabis use to developmental problems in children and is the first to suggest it may impact on sleep cycles long-term.

It comes at a time when – while the number of pregnant women drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes has declined in the United States – it has risen to 7% of all pregnant women as legalisation spreads and more dispensaries recommend it for morning sickness.

“As a society, it took us a while to understand that smoking and drinking alcohol are not advisable during pregnancy, but it is now seen as common sense,” said senior author John Hewitt, director of the Institute for Behavioral Genetics at CU Boulder. “Studies like this suggest that it is prudent to extend that common sense advice to cannabis, even if use is now legal.”

A landmark study

For the study, Hewitt and lead author Evan Winiger analyzed baseline data from the landmark Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which is following 11,875 youth from age 9 or 10 into early adulthood.

As part of an exhaustive questionnaire upon intake, participants’ mothers were asked if they had ever used marijuana while pregnant and how frequently. (The study did not assess whether they used edibles or smoked pot). The mothers were also asked to fill out a survey regarding their child’s sleep patterns, assessing 26 different items ranging from how easily they fell asleep and how long they slept to whether they snored or woke up frequently in the night and how sleepy they were during the day.

About 700 moms reported using marijuana while pregnant. Of those, 184 used it daily and 262 used twice or more daily.

After controlling for a host of other factors, including the mother’s education, parent marital status and family income and race, a clear pattern emerged.

“Mothers who said they had used cannabis while pregnant were significantly more likely to report their children having clinical sleep problems,” said Winiger, a graduate student in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience.

Those who used marijuana frequently were more likely to report somnolence symptoms (symptoms of excess sleepiness) in their children, such as trouble waking in the morning and being excessively tired during the day.

The authors note that, while their sample size is large, the study has some limitations.

“We are asking mothers to remember if they smoked marijuana 10 years ago and to admit to a behaviour that is frowned upon,” said Winiger, suggesting actual rates of prenatal use may have been higher.

While the study doesn’t prove that using cannabis while pregnant causes sleep problems, it builds on a small but growing body of evidence pointing to a link.

For instance, one small study found that children who had been exposed to marijuana in-utero woke up more in the night and had lower sleep quality at age 3. Another found that prenatal cannabis use impacted sleep in infancy.

And, in other previous work, Hewitt, Winiger and colleagues found that teenagers who frequently smoked marijuana were more likely to develop insomnia in adulthood.

The fetal brain on THC

Researchers aren’t sure exactly how cannabis exposure during vulnerable developmental times might shape future sleep. But studies in animals suggest that THC and other so-called cannabinoids, the active ingredients in pot, attach to CB1 receptors in the developing brain, influencing regions that regulate sleep. The ABCD study, which is taking frequent brain scans of participants as they age, should provide more answers, they said.

Meantime, mothers-to-be should be wary of dispensaries billing weed as an antidote for morning sickness. According to CU research, about 70% of Colorado dispensaries recommend it for that use. But mounting evidence points to potential harms, including low birth weight and later cognitive problems.

With marijuana on the market today including far higher THC levels than it did a decade ago, it’s impacts on the fetal brain are likely more profound than they once were.

“This study is one more example of why pregnant women are advised to avoid substance use, including cannabis,” said Hewitt. “For their children, it could have long-term consequences.”

 

Prenatal cannabis exposure and sleep outcomes in children 9–10 years of age in the adolescent brain cognitive development SM study

Sleep Health. 28 June 2020

Abstract

Authors

Evan A Winiger and Dr John K Hewitt

Objectives

Analyse the associations between prenatal cannabis exposure and child sleep outcomes.

Methods

Data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD Study®) was used to determine whether maternal reports of prenatal cannabis use were associated with child sleep outcomes among 11,875 children ages 9–10 controlling for covariates including prenatal substance exposure, mother’s education, combined household income, parental marital status, race, child sex, and child age.

Results

Endorsement of any prenatal cannabis use was associated with symptoms of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of arousal, sleep wake disorders, disorders of excessive somnolence, and a summed sleep disorder score (all β > 0.10 and p < 0.03) while frequency of prenatal daily cannabis use was significantly associated with disorders of excessive somnolence ( β = 0.29, p = 0.03).

Conclusions

Although causality is not established, the results suggest potential long-term effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on sleep and the prudence of abstinence from cannabis use while pregnant.

 

Marijuana use while pregnant boosts risk of children’s sleep problems

 

Prenatal cannabis exposure and sleep outcomes in children 9–10 years of age in the adolescent brain cognitive development SM study

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