Researchers in China and the United Kingdom have estimated that worldwide about 2.5m deaths in 2016 were related to the household air pollution. In a large study in China, the researchers studied the association of long-term use of solid fuels for cooking and heating with the risk of death from cardiovascular disease.
Around 3bn people worldwide use solid fuels (coal, wood, charcoal and crop wastes) to cook and to heat their homes. When burnt, these fuels produce smoke that contains a very high concentration of fine particles (known as PM2.5) and other harmful substances, especially in houses without adequate ventilation.
In China, despite rapid urbanisation in recent decades, about one in three people still rely heavily on solid fuels, mostly coal and wood, for domestic purposes. The health impact of household air pollution on the Chinese population is therefore believed to be substantial, but previous research has not provided concrete evidence.
Researchers from the University of Oxford, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking University in China studied the association of the long-term household use of solid fuels with the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in a study of 271,000 residents in five rural areas in China.
This study is based on the China Kadoorie Biobank prospective study of 0.5m adults from five urban and five rural areas, which was established jointly by the University of Oxford and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences during 2004-08. The present report only included participants from 5 rural areas, where use of solid fuels for domestic purposes is still common. The health status of study participants was monitored through linkages to death registries for an average of seven years. During this time over 5,500 participants died of cardiovascular disease (stroke, heart attack) among those who had no history of cardiovascular disease at the initial recruitment.
The researchers found that, compared with people who mainly used gas or electricity (‘clean fuels’), those who regularly cooked using coal or wood (‘solid fuels’) had a 20% higher mortality risk from cardiovascular disease, and people who heated their homes using solid fuels had a 29% increase in risk, after taking account of the effects of age, sex, socio-economic status, smoking, alcohol drinking, diet, physical activity, and adiposity.
The study also showed clearly that the longer people used solid fuels, the higher the risk of death. Moreover, there were synergistic effects of household air pollution and tobacco smoking, with the risk of death from cardiovascular disease being 76% higher among smokers who used solid fuel than non-smokers who used clean fuels.
Study author, Professor Zhengming Chen, from the University of Oxford, UK, the co-lead principal investigator of the China Kadoorie Biobank, said: “Air pollution has caused a lot of concern in China, but people have been focusing mainly on the outdoor air quality and overlooking the health consequences of pollution arising from domestic burning of coal and wood for cooking and heating, which may have a more profound impact on health.”
While it is known that burning solid fuels gives rise to harmful PM2.5, the direct evidence linking household air pollution to long-term risk of death, especially from cardiovascular causes, has been very limited. The analysis of data in this very large study provides new evidence of the hazards of long-term exposure and ways to mitigate excess risk of death. The study showed that switching from solid to clean fuels for cooking reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 17% and switching from solid to clean fuels for heating reduced the risk by 43%. An equally important finding was that individuals who cooked on stoves using solid fuels but had proper ventilation had an 11% lower risk, compared with those whose cookstoves were not properly ventilated.
Study author, Professor Tangchun Wu, from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, said: “These findings are important because even though people might have been using solid fuels for a long time, there are still clear health benefits in switching to cleaner fuels. Installing ventilation facilities will be a cheaper and effective alternative for those who cannot switch to clean fuels.”
In recent decades, Chinese government has launched a massive campaign to replace traditional cooking stoves and to encourage more widespread use of clean fuels. Findings from this study confirm the health benefits of switching to clean fuels and having proper ventilation. Despite this, use of solid fuel to cook and heat and poor ventilation are still prevalent in many rural areas of China, which will continue to cause many premature deaths from vascular (and many other) diseases.
Study author, Professor Liming Li, Peking University, China, the co-lead principal investigator of the China Kadoorie Biobank, said: “We can’t conclude from these observational findings that burning coal and wood on its own is causing death, but, irrespective of this, China and other low and middle-income countries should encourage their people to change to cleaner domestic fuels, and to prioritise policies and practices to allow a swift, widespread and sustainable switch.”
Importance: When combusted indoors, solid fuels generate a large amount of pollutants such as fine particulate matter.
Objective: To assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking and heating with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.
Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study recruited participants from 5 rural areas across China between June 2004 and July 2008; mortality follow-up was until January 1, 2014. A total of 271 217 adults without a self-reported history of physician-diagnosed cardiovascular disease at baseline were included, with a random subset (n = 10 892) participating in a resurvey after a mean interval of 2.7 years.
Exposures: Self-reported primary cooking and heating fuels (solid: coal, wood, or charcoal; clean: gas, electricity, or central heating), switching of fuel type before baseline, and use of ventilated cookstoves.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Death from cardiovascular and all causes, collected through established death registries.
Results: Among the 271 217 participants, the mean (SD) age was 51.0 (10.2) years, and 59% (n = 158 914) were women. A total of 66% (n = 179 952) of the participants reported regular cooking (at least weekly) and 60% (n = 163 882) reported winter heating, of whom 84% (n = 150 992) and 90% (n = 147 272) used solid fuels, respectively. There were 15 468 deaths, including 5519 from cardiovascular causes, documented during a mean (SD) of 7.2 (1.4) years of follow-up. Use of solid fuels for cooking was associated with greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (absolute rate difference [ARD] per 100 000 person-years, 135 [95% CI, 77-193]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.20 [95% CI, 1.02-1.41]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 338 [95% CI, 249-427]; HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20]). Use of solid fuels for heating was also associated with greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 175 [95% CI, 118-231]; HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.06-1.55]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 392 [95% CI, 297-487]; HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.26]). Compared with persistent solid fuel users, participants who reported having previously switched from solid to clean fuels for cooking had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 138 [95% CI, 71-205]; HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 407 [95% CI, 317-497]; HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]), while for heating, the ARDs were 193 (95% CI, 128-258) and 492 (95% CI, 383-601), and the HRs were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42-0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.57-0.79), respectively. Among solid fuel users, use of ventilated cookstoves was also associated with lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 33 [95% CI, −9 to 75]; HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.99]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 87 [95% CI, 20-153]; HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.96]).
Conclusions and Relevance: In rural China, solid fuel use for cooking and heating was associated with higher risks of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These risks may be lower among those who had previously switched to clean fuels and those who used ventilation.
Kuai Yu; Gaokun Qiu; Ka-Hung Chan; Kin-Bong Hubert Lam; Om P Kurmi; Derrick A Bennett; Canqing Yu; An Pan; Jun Lv; Yu Guo; Zheng Bian; Ling Yang; Yiping Chen; Frank B Hu; Zhengming Chen; Liming Li; Tangchun Wu