Research has estimated that there were 69 perinatal human immunodeficiency virus or HIV infections among infants born in the US in 2013 (1.75 per 100,000 live births) – down from an estimated 216 perinatal HIV infections among infants born in 2002 (5.37 per 100,000 live births).
Updated national estimates of the number of perinatal HIV transmissions in the US are needed to guide policy and monitor progress toward the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission.
Dr Steven R Nesheim, of the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and co-authors used existing HIV surveillance data to estimate the numbers and describe the characteristics of infants with perinatal HIV infection in recent years in the US.
Maternal and infant factors associated with infant HIV infection include late maternal diagnosis and lack of antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis, according to the article.
“Despite reduced perinatal HIV infection in the US, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years. As of 2013, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection remained 1.75 times the proposed Centres for Disease Control and Prevention elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission goal of 1 per 100,000 live births,” the article concludes.
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission.
Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015). Estimates were adjusted for delay in diagnosis and reporting by weighting each reported case based on a model incorporating time from birth to diagnosis and report. Analysis was performed from April 1 to August 15, 2016.
Exposures: Maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral medication, including maternal receipt prenatally or during labor/delivery and infant receipt postnatally.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of perinatally acquired HIV infection in infants born in the United States. Infant and maternal characteristics, including receipt of perinatal HIV testing, treatment, and prophylaxis.
Results: The estimated annual number of perinatally infected infants born in the United States decreased from 216 (95% CI, 206-230) in 2002 to 69 (95% CI, 60-83) in 2013. Among perinatally HIV-infected children born in 2002-2013, 836 (63.0%) of the mothers identified as black or African American and 243 (18.3%) as Hispanic or Latino. A total of 236 (37.5%) of the mothers had HIV infection diagnosed before pregnancy in 2002-2005 compared with 120 (51.5%) in 2010-2013; the proportion of mother-infant pairs receiving all 3 recommended arms of antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment (prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal) was 22.4% in 2002-2005 and 31.8% in 2010-2013, with approximately 179 (28.4%) (2002-2005) and 94 (40.3%) (2010-2013) receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis or treatment during pregnancy. Five Southern states (Florida, Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, and Maryland) accounted for 687 (38.0%) of infants born with HIV infection in the United States during the overall period. According to national data for live births, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection among infants born in the United States in 2013 was 1.75 per 100 000 live births.
Conclusions and Relevance: Despite reduced perinatal HIV infection in the United States, missed opportunities for prevention were common among infected infants and their mothers in recent years. As of 2013, the incidence of perinatal HIV infection remained 1.75 times the proposed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission goal of 1 per 100 000 live births.
Allan W Taylor; Steven R Nesheim; Xinjian Zhang; Ruiguang Song; Lauren F FitzHarris; Margaret A Lampe; Paul J Weidle; Patricia Sweeney