The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society has released guidelines intended as an update to those published in the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine in 2012. The society notes that since the release of the previous guidelines, the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in southern Africa has continued. Cohort studies from the region show excellent clinical outcomes; however, ART is still being initiated late (in advanced disease) in some patients, resulting in relatively high early mortality rates. New data on antiretroviral drugs have become available, however, although currently few, there are patients in the region who are failing protease-inhibitor-based second-line regimens. The society says that to address this, guidelines on third-line therapy have been expanded.