Milk consumed with a high-carbohydrate breakfast reduced blood glucose even after lunch and the effect was increased by high-protein milk, found randomised, controlled, double-blinded study from the universities of Guelph and Toronto.
A change in breakfast routine may provide benefits for the management of type 2 diabetes, according to a study. Dr H Douglas Goff and the team of scientists from the Human Nutraceutical Research Unit at the University of Guelph, in collaboration with the University of Toronto, examined the effects of consuming high-protein milk at breakfast on blood glucose levels and satiety after breakfast and after a second meal.
Milk consumed with breakfast cereal reduced postprandial blood glucose concentration compared with water, and high dairy protein concentration reduced postprandial blood glucose concentration compared with normal dairy protein concentration. The high-protein treatment also reduced appetite after the second meal compared with the low-protein equivalent.
“Metabolic diseases are on the rise globally, with type 2 diabetes and obesity as leading concerns in human health,” Goff and team said. “Thus, there is impetus to develop dietary strategies for the risk reduction and management of obesity and diabetes to empower consumers to improve their personal health.”
In this randomised, controlled, double-blinded study, the team examined the effects of increasing protein concentration and increasing the proportion of whey protein in milk consumed with a high-carbohydrate breakfast cereal on blood glucose, feelings of satiety, and food consumption later in the day. Digestion of the whey and casein proteins naturally present in milk releases gastric hormones that slow digestion, increasing feelings of fullness. Digestion of whey proteins achieves this effect more quickly, whereas casein proteins provide a longer lasting effect.
Although the team only found a modest difference in food consumption at the lunch meal when increasing whey protein at breakfast, they did find that milk consumed with a high-carbohydrate breakfast reduced blood glucose even after lunch, and high-protein milk had a greater effect. Milk with an increased proportion of whey protein had a modest effect on pre-lunch blood glucose, achieving a greater decrease than that provided by regular milk.
According to Goff and colleagues, “This study confirms the importance of milk at breakfast time to aid in the slower digestion of carbohydrate and to help maintain lower blood sugar levels. Nutritionists have always stressed the importance of a healthy breakfast, and this study should encourage consumers to include milk.”
Whey and casein proteins differentially affect postprandial blood glucose and satiety mechanisms, with relevance for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the casein-to-whey protein ratio and total protein concentration of milks consumed with cereal on postprandial blood glucose, appetite ratings, and subsequent food intake in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded study with healthy young adults (n = 32, 23.4 ± 3.1 yr, body mass index = 22.2 ± 2.5 kg/m2). Fasted participants consumed milk (250 mL) with either 80:20 or 40:60 (modified) casein-to-whey protein ratios at commercially normal (3.1%, wt) or high protein (9.3%, wt) concentration, or control (water with whey permeate), each along with 2 servings of oat-based breakfast cereal. Blood glucose concentrations were determined from finger prick blood samples and appetite was assessed using visual analog scales. Participants consumed a measured ad libitum pizza lunch at 120 min and blood glucose determination and appetite assessment continued following the lunch meal (140–200 min) to observe the second meal effect. Pre-lunch (0–120 min) incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and mean change from baseline blood glucose were reduced with consumption of all milk treatments relative to control. However, we found no differences between all treatments on pre-lunch appetite change from baseline and total area under the curve (tAUC) or lunch meal food intake. In terms of protein concentration results, high protein (9.3%, wt) treatments contrasted to normal protein (3.1%, wt) treatments lowered blood glucose change from baseline and iAUC, and post-lunch appetite change from baseline and tAUC. Protein ratio showed a modest effect in that modified (40:60) protein ratio lowered pre-lunch blood glucose change from baseline but not iAUC, and normal (80:20) protein ratio lowered pre-lunch appetite change from baseline but not tAUC. Therefore, high-carbohydrate breakfast meals with increased protein concentration (9.3%, wt) could be a dietary strategy for the attenuation of blood glucose and improved satiety ratings after the second meal.
B Kung, GH Anderson, S Paré, AJ Tucker, S Vien, AJ Wright, HD Goff